I delivered a paper (always in development) detailing recurring themes in the work such as the necessity of decolonisation, the notion of Affectionate Movement, ecologies of care, and the demands placed on bodies within and outside the performance space. The talk, with Jane Lawson, was held at Castlefield Gallery, Manchester 27 February 2018. Link to the talk above.
Activists often speak as though the solutions we need have not yet been launched or invented, as though we are starting from scratch, where often the real goal is to amplify the power and reach of existing alternatives. What we dream of is already present in the world. Rebecca Solnit, Hope in the Dark xv
Josephine Baker (1906-1975), dancer, singer, black activist, world traveller, took Paris by storm as Fatou in “La Folie du Jour” at “Les Folies Bergère”. Baker quickly recognised that her performances were racialised as a particular type of erotic blackness by French audiences. She thus subsequently capitalised on her exoticism and eroticism in her shows. Her performances, problematically, were harnessed for the purposes of the pervading negrophilia, otherwise considered as the subjectivity of Diasporic culture, of what critics have termed the modernist aesthetic.The modernist aesthetic, regarded as a direct response to industrialisation, is interrogated in the work within a framework of capitalist spectacle and war capitalism in reference with the Imperialist project. This leads to the deeper exploration further down the line of the theoretical model of negritude, a movement that arose in Paris in response to anti-colonialism and will be worked through in parallel with understandings of identity politics and conditions of Blackness today.
Revue is a choreographed, repeated routine performed naked, currently for up to four hours set to Cab Calloway’s popular Cotton Club track “Pickin’ up the Cabbage”. Revue will be filtered digitally through institutions in cities throughout the world where Josephine Baker performed, and then back into the public domain. I intend training my body to perform for 24 hours, referencing 24 hour news cycles and spectacle in the media. New York is a potential location for the performance, where Josephine Baker took steps to become the greatest Black celebrity of the time, using her body as a tool to re-imagine Black bodies, and become the civil rights activist that encouraged Coretta Scott King to invite her to lead the Movement after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jnr.
https://w.soundcloud.com/player/?url=https%3A//api.soundcloud.com/tracks/410061639&color=%23ff5500&auto_play=false&hide_related=false&show_comments=true&show_user=true&show_reposts=false&show_teaser=true&visual=true“>https://player.vimeo.com/video/259462143 <p><a href=”https://vimeo.com/259462143″>take2-handheld</a> from <a href=”https://vimeo.com/jademontserrat”>jade montserrat</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>”><p><a href=”https://vimeo.com/259462143″>take2-handheld</a> from <a href=”https://vimeo.com/jademontserrat”>jade montserrat</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>
Revue will develop through a methodology attached to a rigorous training plan (choreographer, durational performance, nutritionist, physiotherapist ). The performance is intent on reimagining the representation of black bodies, with an emphasis on protection, care, positioning and preservation. Revue has the potential to invite multidirectional memory work by locating the performance within terms of reference including: slavery and the spectacle of bondage (slave auctions); consumption of culture and black presence within art institutions; visual consumption of the human body; 24 hour news cycles; dance marathons of the 1930s; monitoring and surveillance; operating in the world despite pain; narratology; time – circular time, racial time, revolutionary time. Repetition locates the performance as both historical and contemporary, embodied and disembodied, with and without agency.
An understanding of monological autonomy will be developed through this performance, formerly called Shadowing Josephine, an iterative work from The Rainbow Tribe project, first shown at “The Art Party Conference” (Bob&Roberta Smith, Scarborough, 2013) and renamed Revue, referencing Baker’s “La Revue Nègre” (1925). Revue leads to a key question: Through self-referentiality, exploring the loss and emergence of identity , how might a theoretical practice-led critique of Black Diaspora, eventually push against monological autonomy within the work?
“When black life matters, time itself is altered, creating “revolutionary time”. To make America great again is, then, to make it “white again,” a temporal action in which the future becomes more like the past and less like the present.” (Mirzoeff http://www.e-flux.com/journal/79/94164/below-the-water-black-lives-matter-and-revolutionary-time/) This quotation is important because time and repetition, historically and physically, aligns the theory of multi-directional memory with revolutionary time, understanding that the precarity of black lives today are embedded in a history of transatlantic slavery, institutional colonial administrative processes and imperial expansion. These elements are embedded within another key question that I would like to ask: Exploring the material conditions of Blackness (cultural constructs/binary structures of representation within neocolonial institutional/dominant regimes of representation) what are the conditions of Black Subjectivity and how is Blackness experienced in a continental European context?
I have developed a personal interest in Baker as a dislocated self-styled woman longing to make sense of the constructs under which she was born. Imperial and colonial histories matter to the urgencies and conditions of our current world: culturally, economically and socially. As a postcolonial subject working from a North Yorkshire town, Scarborough, this research and practice project provides a unique basis for political and intellectual self positioning within Black Diasporic Cultural discourse. Dionne Brand captures this liminal, fractured, disjointed space, which also serves to question cultural values, expectations and limitations: “To live in the Black Diaspora is I think to live as a fiction – a creation of empires, and also self creation. It is to be a being living inside and outside of herself. It is to apprehend the sign one makes yet be unable to escape it except in radiant moments of ordinariness made like art.” (Dionne Brand, 18-19) The North Yorkshire rural landscape is I understand one scarred by borders, a testimony to territorial ownership; yet, I seek sanctuary within it. The project instigates conversations through practice from this personal understanding of the North Yorkshire rural landscape; and from my indeterminate history of migration stemming from my Irish and Welsh, Chinese and Montserratian ancestry, positions that allow unique research, correlations and investigations.
My art practice explores how Baker was appropriated by oppressors as a racialized symbol to serve a paternalistic agenda of apparent sympathy with the plight of the oppressed. This theoretical model, developed by Glissant (through his analysis of the way in which Nelson Mandela was appropriated), situates Baker as a “hero,” in Glissant’s terms, an “écho-monde” in western discourses, likewise therefore, symbolising the causes of oppressive powers: “Oppressive powers know this very well and attempt to incite “heroes”, whether real or mythic, to symbolise their causes. Thus there appear pseudo écho-monde, which Western opinion has apparently become expert at creating.” (Glissant, 201). Baker’s work was thus admired and applauded by the Peron regime and the French Resistance. Notwithstanding, Baker emerged from colonial and segregation contexts, utilised her celebrity status for humanitarian needs, and was subsequently courted by the Civil Rights Movement.
Most likely there will always be women who move with women, women who live with men, men who choose men. I work for a time when women with women, women with men, men with men, all share the work of a world that does not barter bread or self for obedience, nor beauty, nor love. And in that world we will raise our children free to choose how best to fulfill themselves. For we are jointly responsible for the care and raising of the young, since that they be raised is a function, ultimatelg, of the species. Audre Lorde 53
The project’s title is taken from Josephine Baker’s pivotal 20th-century experiment ‘The Rainbow Tribe’ in which a group of 12 ethnically-diverse children were adopted by Baker. The work explores Baker’s fairytale-like ideas of a modern mixed-race family within the climate of global 21st-century issues surrounding cultural diversity and political freedom within the context of the Imperial movement. Ann Anlin Cheng, in “Second Skin: Josephine Baker & The Modernist Surface”, argues that “”The “Rainbow Tribe”…as a collection of children of different races teeters uneasily between a bold dream of diversity and disquieting repetition of Imperial desire.” (191 note 4). Baker’s family experiment was her flawed, solution to a global problem – how to transcend race. We might think of Josephine Baker’s “Rainbow Tribe” as an orphanage and by extension, through this contemporary project, Black Britain as an orphaned group: Where is my, and by implication where is the Othered bodies, space and place? Therefore, a key enquiry will issue from asking: How might the question prompted by Stuart Hall “From where does he/she speak?” (Hall, 222) expand the methodological role and function of performance and location from a Northern premise?
The research will continue to work in parallel with exploring Josephine Baker’s personal agency as indicated by Cheng: “…the paradigm of attributing all or no Agency to Baker (not to mention conflating biography with subjectivity) is inadequate to address the dynamic exchanges provoked by her performances between theatrics and spectatorship, between performance and the performer, and between cultural practice and social imagination.” (Cheng,191 note 4 ). Research includes an enquiry into the balance between how Baker enabled control of her body and persona, representations and possible manipulations of her body and an unapologetic quest for equality and freedom. Griselda Pollock’s following quotation probes at the issue that creative practice enables, towards a reaching out within a wider world: physical movement across histories, concepts, theories and geographical borders. “It might be that Josephine Baker had such an impact in that short and strange period of her initial success as a Folies-Bergere dancer in the 1920s precisely because she inhabited their fantasy costumes that bespoke their desire to conjugate the African with the primal, the animal, their vitalizing but subordinate other, while in her actual performance she charmingly undid it all because she was actually dancing in a modern style to the music of a modern vernacular.” (Pollock, 131)
The Rainbow Tribe project hopefully signals potentials for enriching the personal and political, a time for self-reflexivity and to recognise the spatialisation of social and political practice. The project attempts to communicate a centring through practice, which has a precariousness to it – the reality of my personal experience. The following quotation is important to the proposal because it recognises this precarity, and also the potentials for seeking belonging and towards freedoms: “Every time an individual or community attempts to define its place in it, even if this place is disputed, it helps blow the usual way of thinking off course, driving out the now weary rules of former classicisms, making new “follow-throughs” to chaos-monde possible”. (Glissant, 137) Widening this out again we can think of the position of black people in Europe and how we situate ourselves, for thinking through the idea of Diaspora, meaning people who are spread, The Rainbow Tribe attempts to work through that diffusion.
The aims of creative work issuing from The Rainbow Tribe lead to investigating the idea of choreographed bodies and bodies in movement: ownership, representations and manipulations of the body; equality and freedom of expression, speech, movement, to actively participate as community, recalling and exploring through creative practice, and this quotation, again by Glissant, articulates this possibility: “This movement allows giving-on-and-with the dialectic among aesthetics.” (Glissant, 203)
Driving my personal practice, where I perform solo, working through and with the idea of space activating, the space becoming catalyst, just as charcoal can be thought of as a binding catalyst, is a performance installation called No Need For Clothing. The drawing installation manifests through drawing on gallery walls with charcoal, material darkness, and my body gets covered in the dirt of the work of it, emphasising the labour that goes into creative practice. No Need For Clothing uses drawn and spoken text, text drawn through the body, as a device to work through the embodied material conditions that a reciprocity between words, bodies and materiality can address. No Need For Clothing develops out of the occupation at The Cooper Gallery, “Two Night Stands” programme, (2017) where individual text works forming works on paper were transcribed as a temporary wall drawing plus a recitation of the texts, resulting in the appearance of a cacophony of texts, drawn and spoken (seen and heard) and ephemeral. I place myself, naked, in the space of the gallery and became the words and deeds indicated within the texts. This idea relates to Hannah Arendt’s “words and deeds” from her book “The Human Condition” and “the space of appearance – provoked into becoming an event”. Space of appearance – a process of being seen and heard by others. Gestures must be provoked into becoming an event. The space of appearance is a certain death and transfiguration, rising, and breakdowns, paring down to of being and appearing, the fact of being, of gesturing, until the death is our becoming her body, the space of appearing is through that reversal, a tilt shift, firmly, indelibly by the fact of our blackening creating anew, trailing, creating pathways, smudging and muddling. I stand with Audre Lorde who says “…we must never close our eyes to the terror, to the chaos which is Black which is creative which is female which is dark which is rejected which is messy which is,…”. 79
No Need For Clothing, Cooper Gallery DJCAD, (Jacquetta Clark), 2017
No Need For Clothing has the potential to speak of entanglement, of commodity fetishism; possessively accumulated, intimately discarded; a polemic engaged in combat between histories of colonialism and today’s realities, imposition and economies of trust, protection and survival. The work is partly inspired by Lubaina Himid “cotton.com” (“Fabrications”, Cube Gallery, Manchester, 2002) and generated through understandings of economies of production, consumption and global trade in cotton in relation to bodies and in particular, black fungibility: movement, subjectivity, consumption, trade. The performance and works on paper are linked because of the reciprocity between body as material, and material embodying the invitation for dialogue, through text and image, and demonstrate original research into the histories and legacies of and cultural and theoretical responses to slavery and migrations in the context of Black Atlantic cultural studies. The texts recognise the limitations of language and words, but also as sites for reclamation and ownership. ARCHIBALD in Jean Genet’s The Blacks speaks of “…stretching language, we’ll distort it sufficiently to wrap ourselves in it and hide whereas the masters contract it.” We cloak, drape and support our bodies by, with and through words. We use them to protect us, to shield us, as doors through which we can enter and surrender or to shut doors, to contain, mask, obscure and deceive. There are many languages, there are dominant languages and rec NT travels, to perform this work ironically, have reinforced an inherent domination, a reminder of colonial conquest, my inability to speak any other language and an arrogance and expectation that my hosts will not only understand me but converse with me. My being apologetic, in the only language I know, English, is not enough. The stretching of language is actually missing from the work – it’s conservative in its command, there are no linguistic signifiers, no references to particular culture, apart from of course the dominant one. Bodies speak, form, create structure; movement speaks through these thoughts. The perfectly natural but embarrassing incident when i thought i was alone in the gallery in Dundee making the work, the mistaken idea that I could free up from the inevitable tension that comes with being unclothed and chatting away, and this lul from a steady stream of public who had been advised that conversation was encouraged, my body spoke, took relief and I farted away, only to turn around and to my horror there was a new visitor. Together our bodies spoke, moved silently. Afterwards i was told by the curator that this architecture student had scurried off not because i had let loose, there was no mention of that in her understanding of the situation, but because i had made a peculiar expression created by his presence.
No Need For Clothing, NUA (image: Caroline Fisher), 2017
<p><a href=”https://vimeo.com/253340833″>Jade Monserrat</a> from <a href=”https://vimeo.com/aplaceofaction”>]performance s p a c e [</a> on <a href=”https://vimeo.com”>Vimeo</a>.</p>https://vimeo.com/253340833
The vulnerability that is apparent through the sheer and defiant act of nakedness is coupled with interpretation of the naked body: brazen or scared; empowered or surrendering: embarrassed or ashamed; hot or cold; indifferent or hyper alert; through choice or not; unclothed out of a practical approach in this case in light of the material, or a spectacle. We all share a body, a sum of many parts that be restricted or free to move. ” As president Sékou Touré aptly remarked in his message to the second congress of African writers:
In the realm of thought, man may claim to be the brain of the world; but in real life where every action affects spiritual and physical existence, the world is always the brain of mankind; for it is at this level that you will find the sum total of the powers and units of thought, and the dynamic forces of development and improvement; and it is there that energies are merged and the sum of man’s intellectual values is finally added together.
Individual experience, became it is national and because it is a link in the chain of national existence, ceases to be individual, limited, and shrunken and is enabled to open out into the truth of the nation and of the world.” Frantz Fanon, “The Wretched of the Earth”, p. 161
Our bodies are tools for action; for drawing with, through, around, in parallel, out of, along, in harmony, discordantly. And moving within space means encountering barriers, margins, parameters, strategies for self-care amidst unfamiliar terrain (and in the case of a gallery space which flags up its own concerns be it the lighting rig and ladders, how to keep hydrated and warm.) “lack of jurisdiction over one’s body is a form of silencing, a way of making what one says have no value, and words without value are worse than silence: one can be punished for them. “ solnit the mother of all questions 27 HOw do we value our drawing out of our bodies, and who sets that value? What is being revealed or what are the hidden costs, structures? How do we measure a sense of worth? Who is worthy? And who chooses how bodies are commodified? What types of actions have been taken, what models can we steer through, that suggest ways of thinking about our body’s use and navigation through the wordings and language of those actions; what actions wedge open space and dialogue that will challenge “Naked self-interest” (communist manifesto) transformatively? What are The actions taken and the action considered, the actions expected and the actions given. The thought is the action and the greatest action is love. No need For Clothing is a gesture through movements; i get to work out! Life drawing! Observational drawing! Audre Lorde writes of this education “You always learned from observing. YOu have to get it for yourself, whatever it is that you need in order to survive and if you make a mistake you get punished for it, but that’s no big thing you become strong by doing the things you need to be strong for this is the way genuine learning takes place.” 58 Reciprocal drawing out, through and continuous. If, perhaps, our motions and movements were spurred by loving action. Creative action born of Love. Spurred, scorned and our breath is action needed to overcome our egos assaulted passions. Take action! But again in whose interests is under discussion?
No Need For Clothing, Cooper Gallery DJCAD, (Jacquetta Clark), 2017
Works on paper, drawing installation and the spoken performance comprising No Need For Clothing have the potential to emphasise the power of the word in relation to the body. No Need For Clothing text works and accompanying performance installation have the potential to visualise the naming, framing, wording, and categorising of matter, drawn and interpreted from relationships and spaces. The work I intend making from this position understands that the body is a material connected to the ground, to the “landscape”, and is inevitably sculptural. The use of charcoal as a fundamental instrument within art education was at the fore of Dave’s mind when we had a conversation about charcoal last year. Dave Hutchinson is a charcoal burner, who is passionate about his life’s work burning. He stressed or elaborated that all life on this planet is what what we are made of and wants to share itself with other things (to help make up a molecule) – the lattice structure is a carbon structure and carbon is the strongest bond. Charcoal he believes is the first medium of artists and that here we’ve come full circle, for we equal carbon; think of the cave drawings in France and how man was made into the artist through this material. Primo Levi, in a Radio 4 programme called In their element: carbon – the backbone of life that Dave recommended, mentioned that carbon says something to everyone. It’s ours for the taking, for discussion, for use, for awareness, for renewal. I like Lubaina Himid reply to being asked what she wants, because i also want this, and know plenty of others who do too: “to make real the idea of dialogue, communication, collaboration in a sort of monument to similarity and difference shot through with political banter.” All bodies are political and it is the space for the banter, the words, the exchanges in gestural terms, that created a language of movement, which asks of us to exchange how our thought and movement converge into action.
No Need For Clothing, Cooper Gallery DJCAD, (Jacquetta Clark), 2017
The Rainbow Tribe honours difference and joins together forming a shared narrative without eliminating individual stories.An iteration of the project, formed last year is Rainbow Tribe: Affectionate Movement. *Affectionate Movement is a term coined and used in a paper for an anthology on gender construction, published by Cambridge Scholars Press to describe an approach to exploring shifts in freedom, agency, ethics, care, and being in community. led by myself and Ria Hartley last year, and including another 10 artists, echoing Josephine Baker’s original social experiment, Rainbow Tribe: Affectionate Movement aims to ascertain new ground for politicized territories. Working remotely we began to investigate the possibilities for inclusivity, understandings of negotiation and how different bodies can be together, in virtual space. The workshop was initiated by the exclusively online enquiry of what “affectionate movement” has the potential to be within existing systems and movements, as a type of capital and empowerment through getting to know and caring about each other.
Our culture teaches us to focus on personal uniqueness, but at a deeper level we barely exist as individual organisms. Our brains are built to help us function as members of a tribe. We are part of that tribe even when we are by ourselves, whether listening to music (that other people created), watching a basketball television on television (our own muscles tensing as the players run or jump), or preparing a spread sheet for a sales meeting (anticipating the boss’s reactions). Most of our energy is devoted to connecting with others. Bessel van der Kolk The Body Keeps the Score 78
We understand ‘Affectionate Movement’ (#affectionate movement #am) in the context of the first Rainbow Tribe: Affectionate Movement workshop as the negotiation of our bodies in virtual space, within Western ‘neo-colonial’ white supremacist capitalist patriarchy. Affectionate Movement is our attempt to dismantle, critique, question, and work within and out of this postmodern context of control and power. We will keep returning to this term, Affectionate Movement, in an effort to reveal the possibilities for transformation that this movement attempts. We might consider the term as two separate words coming together that are comparative to protest and Activism and can be linked back to Josephine Baker’s fight for civil rights. Can affection protect fundamental rights?
The healing power of community as expressed in music and rhythms was brought home for me in the spring of 1997, when I was following the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. …
Yet, while the surroundings were foreign and terrifying, I recognised this group all too well: The women sat slumped over – sad and frozen – like so many rape therapy groups I had seen in Boston. I felt a similar sense of helplessness, and, surrounded by collapsed people, I felt myself mentally collapse as well. Then one of the women started to him, while gently saying back and forth. Slowly rhythm emerged; bit by bit other women joined in. Soon the whole group was singing, moving, and getting up to dance. It was an astounding transformation: people coming back to life, faces becoming attuned, vitality returning to bodies. I made a vow to apply what I was seeing there and to study how rhythm, chanting, and movement can help heal trauma.
Bessel van der Kolk The Body Keeps the Score 213-4
A progression of Rainbow Tribe: Affectionate Movement, is the Ecology of Care Bureau Initiated by myself and Daniella Valz Gen in 2017 and operates within live art through performative interventions, conversations, workshops and immersive durational collaborative experiments.
The Ecology of Care Bureau seeks to reclaim diversity, towards an Ecology of Care, a work in progress. The Ecology of Care Bureau is a team of artist-researchers, citizens and cultural workers. The Ecology of Care Bureau is not a team of experts or consultants, just an interested party in the circumstances that affect us. The Ecology of Care Bureau aims to move away from a purely economical framework towards an ecological one.
The Ecology of Care Bureau was set up as a creative container for safe conversations and generative strategies towards a sustainable and healthy practice. Through personal experience, members of the Bureau identified the need to address the urgency of a care centred approach within the highly sensitive terrains marginalised artists navigate. Our endeavour is to be better equipped to confront the issues that affect us in our personal and professional lives.
Frequently, when speaking with men and white women, I am reminded of how difficult and time-consuming it is to have to reinvent the pencil every time you want to send a message. Audre Lorde Your Silence Eill Not Protect You 52
Standing by the vital necessity of care means standing for sustainable and flourishing relations, not merely survivalist or instrumental ones. Continuing to hold together as triptych of care doings/affectivity/ethics-politics helps to resist to ground care as an ethico-affective everyday doing that is vital to engage with the inescapable troubles of interdependent existences Maria Puig de la Bellacasa
We are interdependent on each other, in order to galvanise sustainable systemic change towards an equitable society, we should work together and learn what care means for each other. Our needs and positions differ, and in handling those differences in a generative and careful way we stand a better chance to move towards a healthier and fairer way of working.
During the time we spent together in Scarborough, having been granted through LADA’s DIY scheme to run An Ecology Of Care workshop, we acknowledged the importance to make space for a renewal of resolve. We started our DIY Ecology Of Care workshop by holding a space for sangha, which is the term in Buddhism for an assembly. The purpose of our sangha was to uphold our vision and intention, and acknowledge the need to be accountable to that vision consistently through an ongoing community. Within our discussion we identified the need for further tools to be able to effectively centre care. It is now our intention to spend the next year acquiring various types of training that we intend to strategically disseminate amongst members of the Ecology of Care bureau. Amongst these we are considering Non violent communication, embodied psychotherapy, trauma informed movement based strategies and transcendental meditation.
During our DIY in Scarborough we sought to embed ourselves within the local terrain. We were kindly hosted by both the Stephen Joseph Theatre and Crescent Arts and were able to see how these two organisations understand working through notions of diversity. It was really important to engage in a generative conversation and learn from the organisations perspective. Compass Live Art, the organisation that supported our DIY came to share space with us on our last day together. It was also important to engage in a direct dialogue around Compass’ approach to diversity and care. From this exchange came out the idea to suggest that the organisations that are part of LAUK make explicit their care policies when working with artists.RT:AM will continue to explore alternative methodologies of artistic collaboration and output by developing new ways of supporting the needs of artists dismantling colonialism & the emotional labor involved..It will furnish myself (& other artists) with tools to have conversations around race & decolonization/enable us to hold space to create work in a supported environment. These tools can then be adapted, developed and disseminated for use by artists who are working with these ideas and also, importantly, for the institutions that employ them.Whilst Creating a body of research to better understand any gaps in current systems of care & how to build a new, collective model of creative care. There is a demand for work/artistic practices that engage with the issues of race and colonialism. However, there is often not enough all round support available for the people making it. This activity is a first step to interrogate and develop new way of working that fully support individual, collective and specific needs of people creating this work. I want to acquire the tools necessary to to better support this style of work and the people making it.
Institutionalised rejection of difference is an absolute necessity in a profit economy which needs outsiders as surplus in a profit economy which needs outsiders as surplus people. As members of such an economy, we have all been programmed to respond to the human differences between us with fear and loathing and to handle that difference in one of three ways: ignore it, and if that is not possible, copy it if we think it is dominant, or destroy it if we think it is subordinate. But we have no patterns for relating across our human differences as equals. As a result, those differences have been misnamed and misused in the service of separation and confusion lorde . 95
No Need For Clothing, Cooper Gallery DJCAD, (Jacquetta Clark), 2017
The collective struggle presupposes collective responsibility at the base and collegiate responsibility at the top. Yes, everybody will have to be compromised in the fight for the common good. No one has clean hands; there are no innocents and no onlookers. We all have dirty hands; we are all soiling them in the swamps of our country and in the terrifying emptiness of our brains. Every onlooker is either a coward or a traitor. Frantz Fanon, ‘The Wretched of the Earth”, 161